Redlands Tract Sale 1881-1882




Founded 24 January 1895

Meeting Number 1907

 4:00 P.M.

April 27, 2017

Redlands Tract Sale 1881-1882

By Tom Atchley

Assembly Room, A. K. Smiley Public Library

Key words: Judson & Brown, Preliminary Map of Redlands, Birds Eye View, Red Lands, Redlands Tract Sale, Walter Butler, Brown Day Books, Redlands Reservoir, Judson and Brown Ditch, street plan, 45 degree street angle, First 500 acres, Second Preliminary Map, Robert Morton, William Somers, Crafton Tract Map, Judson nursery, Plaza addition, February 20, 1882, Lewis Jacobs, Benjamin Franklin Watrous, Brookside Avenue, Cajon Street

Background of author

     Tom Atchley is a retired social studies teacher, concluding 38 years of teaching in the Redlands Unified School District in June of 2011.  He earned his AA degree in history/government from Valley College, San Bernardino and BA degree in history/government from the University of Redlands.  In 1975 he earned a MA degree in Pupil Personnel from the University of Redlands.  Arriving at Redlands High School from Cope Junior High in 1978, he became the chair of the Finance Committee for Redlands High.  For 12 years he was department chair for social studies and then chair of the Advanced Placement Department for his last decade of teaching.   He became adviser for the school paper, Hobachi, in 1985 and remained so until retirement.

Since local history is a hobby,  Tom Atchley was a founding member of the Redlands Area Historical Society, Yucaipa Historical Society and Big Bear Historical Society.   Tom Atchley was chosen as President of the Redlands Area Historical Society and has served on the board and leadership positions.   Beginning in 1974, he taught the “History of the San Bernardino Valley and Redlands” with Dr. Larry Burgess.  He has indexed most of the local newspapers from the 1880’s to 1950’s.

Since retirement, Tom has written A Driving Tour of the Mill Creek Zanja and a History of the Mission School District 1853-2012.   Tom has completed chapters on early Lugonia, the History of Mill Creek Canyon: Saw Mills, Mining, and early pioneers.  Focusing on early Frank Brown, Tom is now writing the history of early Redlands.

Summary of the Paper

     The quest to research Frank Brown led to New Haven, Connecticut and the archives of Sheffield College.  Brown submitted a paper to the engineering faculty in 1890 along with some of his Day Books that chronicled the history of Lugonia and Redlands from 1880-1890.

The Day Books accounted for the day to day tasks Brown established for each day and simple summaries of what was accomplished.  Beginning with the Lugonia Fruit Dryer that Judson and Brown established the Day Books are remarkable local history.   One can follow Brown with his accounts to pay for honey, apricots, fruit dryer and the laborers.  Brown records his quest and frustrations to find water to irrigate Victoria, Highlands, Lugonia and then Redlands.

The Day Books record the exploration of the San Bernardino Mountains in 1881 and the climbing of Grizzly Peak (Mount San Gorgonio).   Brown envisioned tapping the Whitewater River to develop the San Jacinto Valley a decade later.

Day Book “C” records the beginning of Redlands with the purchase of key water shares in Lugonia and the building of the Judson and Brown tunnels and ditch that are now on the National Register.

To tell the history of the beginning of Redlands the Day Books reveal the hopes and aspirations of Judson and Brown.  These documents led to the writing of the chapter on the Redlands Tract Sale 1881-1882 and future building of the Bear Valley dam 1883-1884.

Brown subsequently received his advanced engineering degree from Sheffield College, an adjunct of Yale, for building the Bear Valley Dam.  The Day Books contained all his mathematical problems, mechanical engineered devices, weather records from 1769, valley elevations, and financial issues.

This paper is a compilation of the Day Books, Judson and Brown letters, documents from the Bear Valley Mutual Water Co. and numerous newspapers that reported on the early development of Redlands.

Redlands Tract Sale

By Tom Atchley

     Frank Brown and Edward Judson were extraordinarily busy the years before the Redlands first tract sale.  Judson continued propagating nursery stock in Lugonia while Brown supervised the J & B canal, reservoir, tunnels, and survey work.  Judson kept the books for the firm and paid the bills and with Brown shared the trips to San Bernardino to receive instructions from the county surveyor and county recorder dealing with land transfers, right of ways, water claims, contracts, legal questions, and subdivision maps.   Brown seized the initiative to locate additional water.  Judson studied agriculture of Southern California somewhat surpassing Brown and his college education on the subject.  By September 1881, Judson had 7,000 apricot and 2,000 peach trees.  His nursery was one of the three largest in the county.   J & B were both attracted to citrus especially after operating a fruit dryer with the challenging labor demands and the fact that deciduous fruit had a very limited shelf life.

After the purchase of the Hezekiah and Ellen Ball ranch in Lugonia the pair focused on the land south of the Zanja.   Brown had additional responsibilities with a growing family.  Emeline Rich Brown was born January 21, 1879 and Reuben Quincy Brown October 8, 1880.  The small ranch house on Evergreen (Lugonia Avenue) became too small.   The long rides to East Highland to build the higher flume line, tunnels and redwood diversion for the North Fork Ditch all required very long physical days.   Brown was finding the amount of work over powering.   He wrote his classmate from Sheffield College, Walter C. Butler and promised plenty of work surveying and engineering.

Walter Butler was born in New Haven, Connecticut in 1855 and graduated with Brown in 1876.  Butler had mild tuberculosis and Brown thought the climate would provide the promise of a cure.  Butler arrived in 1879 and bought land in Lugonia.  Brown sent him to the East Highland bench to survey and supervise the building of the irrigation system for J & B.   In 1883, Butler planned the Brockton Tract for Riverside settlers moving to Lugonia.   Butler (Butler Peak) became the assistant engineer on the construction of the Bear Valley dam 1883-1884.    Butler was assistant engineer for the Bear Valley Irrigation Company until the completion of the Alessandro pipe line in 1893.   Butler completed the Mound City (Loma Linda) pipeline.  He surveyed and planned the extensive Drew Ranch located northwest of Old San Bernardino.  His sister married Harvey Hewitt the son of Isaac L. Hewitt, an extensive land owner in Lugonia.  Unfortunately, Butler lost his battle with TB and died January 4, 1895.   His significance led to a biography and photo in Illustrated Redlands 1897 two years after his death.   Butler was the first of several talented engineers that Brown would attract to Redlands.

Brown planted flax and barley on newly acquired railroad land on the future site of the first land sale in 1880.   The experiment was dry farming necessitating winter rain for a spring crop.   The Day Books never recorded the results.

Luther Holt, Edward Judson, Col. William Tolles and Major David A. Shaw all wrote descriptions of Lugonia and the surrounding settlements prior to Redlands in both Riverside and San Bernardino newspapers.   When Judson & Brown began buying property that would become Redlands; Holt, Judson and Brown discussed a name for the new subdivision.  The men felt this was necessary to suggest a difference between Lugonia and the other settlements such as Old San Bernardino and Crafton.

Holt felt the connection with Riverside would aid both developing communities and advertise the breadth of property for sale.  The one characteristic that the three men agreed upon was the red-clay soil of the new J & B subdivision.  Judson broke out with “Why not call it Redlands?” and in less than two minutes it was unanimously adopted by all three as just the name, according to Judson.

Riverside has a similar soil.  Lugonia consists of sandy alluvial fan soil from Mill Creek.  Judson began writing that the red clay had special properties that promoted citrus production. Shaw was happy to continue bolstering Lugonia as the apricot-raisin growing center since the crops were profitable and the fruit driers main source of income. J & B wanted to promote citrus for their new colony that sometimes was spelled in two words  “Red Lands” on the maps.   J & B embraced the idea that Redlands was another Riverside and Brookside Avenue was designed to attract Riverside investors.

Judson began writing extensive newspaper descriptions of Redlands with special emphasis on the irrigation infrastructure by September 1881.  Judson noted the creation of the Redlands Water Company with the tract installing steel pipe and cement pipelines.  Judson mentioned that the subdivision would offer land in two and a half, five and ten acre parcels with water rights, wide avenues, shade trees and a town site with a plaza in the center of the tract.   Redlands was ballyhooed as the next Riverside.

Luther Holt did influence J & B to sell each acre of land with a water share.  To accomplish water ownership the Redlands Water Company was incorporated October 27, 1881 with a capital stock worth $150,000.  Byron Waters, Riverside attorney, drew up the papers.  Luther M. Holt listed his residence in Riverside.  Mrs. Ellen B. Seymour has the only Redlands address at the Prospect House.   J & B both reside in Lugonia.  Holt invested $500; Dr. Seymour and Bryon Waters provided $1000 each with J & B provided the bulk of the cash at $50,000 each.

The water company owned 50 shares of the Sunnyside Ditch, 108 inches of the Santa Ana tunnels, the J & B five and half mile long ditch and the Redlands reservoir.  J & B provided a Redlands Water Co. share worth one-eighth inch of water with each acre of land.  The first directors meetings were held at the Prospect House.  James Edwards recalled attending meetings in 1882 and was elected a director.  Edwards confessed no knowledge of managing a water company.  J & B were novices as well and had to ask the first land sale buyers to allow right-of-way permission for the water company pipe lines.  The one-eighth inch per irrigated acre proved insufficient and was doubled after 1885.    The water company proved a valuable asset to blossoming Redlands and is today the oldest business of the community.

J & B strategically planned the first 500 acres.  Nearly all the land was adjacent to Cajon Street from East Crescent north to Citrus Avenue.   The main pipeline of the tract extended from the reservoir to East Crescent.   Cajon Street was located just below the second reservoir site.   Land east of Cajon extended to Reservoir Road (Roosevelt after his visit).   Steel pipe irrigation lines extended the length of Cajon with laterals on each of the crossing avenues.  Cajon Street follows a natural berm that allows for gravity flow irrigation to the east or west of the street.  The Cajon and East Crescent weir box became the central Zanjero station to irrigate the Redlands Tract.  The East Crescent weir eventually was extended to Terracina and Mound City (Loma Linda).

Brown chose Citrus Avenue (Barton Road) to bend streets with a 45 degree angle so the tract would follow the highest water line or Crescent Avenue.  Previous histories credit Brown with this geographic modification of the north-south and east-west trajectory of the Land Act of 1785.   The modification placed south Redlands on this 45 degree angle promoting gravity flow irrigation.  The other avenue designed into the plan was Brookside.  The Mill Creek Zanja flowed in the same southwest direction.  Brookside Avenue had the lovely wooded stream paralleling the west end of this avenue.

The Preliminary Map of Redlands was filed by Judson November 21, 1881.  Drawn by Brown the scale is 800 feet to the inch is given along with block letters, lot numbers, and the identification of sections 35 and 34 where applicable.   No streets are identified on the subdivision map except for Barton Street (Citrus Ave.) and Yucaipa Street (Fifth Ave).   When prospective buyers arrived to scout the land for sale only stakes marked the corners of lots.  So much time was devoted for irrigation preparation that the perspective of a buyer was never considered.  Buyers had to pace off the land to find a particular lot.   The real amateur error of the founders came when the new property owners needed their deed recorded.   Suddenly the 45 degree angle becomes a descriptive nightmare.    Every piece of property requires a special measured description involving the township, section, block letter, lot number and then rods, feet and inches to tailor concise land ownership.

The 45 degree angle presented another problem for prospective land sales.   All the properties adjoining East Citrus Avenue at the angle had triangular lots that were difficult to sell.  On East Olive and Citrus the Seventh Day Adventist Church did not buy the lot until 1917.  East Fern is now occupied by Redlands High but never had an orange grove or home.  East Cypress has one home on the southwest corner odd triangle lot.   East Cypress was joined by Somers Street until the 1960’s when city engineers closed Somers Street for a new subdivision.   East Palm had an orange grove with one tree furrows at the point of the angle.  Irrigation with such short rows wasted a good deal of water.  East Olive and East Cypress remain the only parts of the angle that exist today.  The problem triangle created by the angle at Citrus, Cajon and Orange was given to the city by J & B in 1888 as a small park.   Cajon Street now bends to meet Orange Street at Citrus with this problem solved by city engineer, George Hinckley.

The other amateur error of J & B in their early land sales was their failure to allow for right of way for the Redlands Water Co. pipelines and Redlands Street Railway.  Eventually all the land owners on Cajon Street were asked to quit claim 10 feet from the center of the street for the railway.  The original deeds measured land from the center of the nonexistent street.  In a petition passed around by J & B, each land owner was asked to voluntarily quit claim the edge of their properties.   After these errors future subdivisions carefully included deed codicils that allowed for right of way pipelines or railway tracks.

The November 19, 1881 Riverside Press and Horticulturalist proclaimed the sale of the Redlands Tract would take place in one week.  The article indicates 200 acres were already spoken for and work on two homes would begin when the surveyors located property lines.  “This is a nucleus of the “second edition” to Riverside.  Tract has 1,500 acres with more water supplies needed to spread over additional territory.”    In the same issue J. G. Cockshutt, one of the first to buy land, reported, “250 acres of land sold and price raised from $50 to $75 an acre.”

Several interested parties bought land from J & B before the official land sale in November.  Reuben Francis Cunningham and John Stone bought 20 acres that was outside the Preliminary Map.  Mrs. V.V. Annabel paid $1250 for 20 acres on the southwest corner of Cajon and W. Fern.  Mrs. L. V. Henderson bought 20 acres for $1250 on West Cypress just one 10 acre lot west of Cajon Street.  Most of all the other property purchased in November was not recorded until December after the big one day rush.

Enthusiasm for the land brought purchasers to the land before stakes properly identified lots. [“Never before in the history of land enterprises on the Pacific Coast has there been such a rush for land.]  Last Tuesday witnessed the closing up of the sales early in the day while a score of purchasers were standing around discussing the merits of the situation and other would-be-purchasers were continually arriving and departing, expressing their regrets that they were a day to late.  Another 500 acres will be placed on the market when certain works are completed.  Expenses are reduced to a minimum since no gang of zanjeros is required to watch the ditches, gates, gopher holes, etc. “

Despite the press hyperbole the sale was successful with all 500 acres of the Preliminary Redlands Tract sold.   Frank Brown dutifully recorded each owner in Day Book C p.96-97.

Names in order of sale                                 acres     price

  1. Robert B. Morton and J. F. Kious 30        $1400
  2. Frost 20            750     Riverside
  3. Kate F. Overton 17             750    Riverside
  4. W. Boggs 10             375
  5. W. Boggs 10             375
  6. P. Moody 10             375
  7. M. F. Colburn                              10           deed
  8. Thomas B. Stephenson 10             375
  9. W. Kidder 10             500
  • W. Smith 10 deed
  • H. Ashley 9 750
  • P. Greeves 10              375
  • F. Welsh 20              527
  • G. Simms 10 700
  • V. V. Annabel 34      1250   Riverside
  • S. Cover 562.50
  • Samuel McCoy 50
  • Brainard W. Brown 10 150   brother of Frank Brown
  • E. Branch 562.50
  • M. Westbrook 20 750
  • Charles A. Smith 10 50
  • H. Smith 375
  • John Allen 500
  • H. Averill 9 750
  • John Carroll 950
  • George Cassady 950
  • Charles E. Truesdell                                 1000
  • Schuler Ingham 300
  • Ellen B. Seymour 4 300    cousin of Frank Brown
  • John E. Sinclair 400
  1. Trustee for Sinclair 400
  • Alban G. Saunders 10 50
  • Benjamin F. Watrous 750

Total of     500 acres         $18,414.50

This Redlands Tract land sale set the San Bernardino County record that remained until the 1887-1888 land-booms which was broken by the Redlands Town lot sale in 1887.  The $18,414.50 helped J & B meet land purchases owed to the Barton’s, the Railroad and William Somers.  The sales money helped complete the 17 acre reservoir and pay 20 teams of street graders led by Robert Morton and Co. and Israel Beal.  Land sales in East Highland were also brisk.  Walter Butler came to the aid of Brown to prepare the Second Preliminary Map of Redlands survey.

Book of Deeds indicates new purchase clients must expend ½ of their purchase price within one year on improvements and care for street trees, contiguous streets, and roadways or forfeit property due to lack of performance.   The deed codicils present a strict enforcement of land improvement.   J & B did not want speculative land purchases so the required improvements would only attract actual setters.  James Edwards recalled years later how Edward Judson scolded him for building a shabby home on East Cypress.  Judson was rightfully concerned with attracting a new group of buyers in 1882 with proper homes under construction.   J & B offered terms of ½ down with 10% interest.   Most buyers paid in gold coin the full amount.

The Robert Morton family spent their first Thanksgiving in a two room sheep-herders shack on Cajon and Cypress.  He recalled the bleak conditions with a north wind howling outside.   The nearest store was the George Cook store on West Lugonia.   The store was actually more of a trading post.   No post office existed closer than San Bernardino.   None of the streets were graded or marked; no water was closer than the Mill Creek Zanja and the railroad that was advertised at three miles away had no street thoroughfare there nor any sidetrack or depot.  In fact, the first Southern Pacific stop to Redlands was Mound City (Loma Linda) and that was sporadic.   Morton recalled, “My wife and I moved into a squatter’s shack of two rooms on the bleak hillside of what is now Redlands.  No other family on the tract………I laid off all the streets with a plow and team…….With forty Indians, I dug most of the ditches.”   Morton fails to mention he is following survey stakes of Frank Brown and Walter Butler.

Nonetheless, Myron Crafts, the pioneer of the famous Crafton Retreat was enthralled by the success of J & B and decided to subdivide his 1200 acre Crafton land.  Crafts took out a full page ad in the Riverside Press and Horticulturalist and   he mentioned the good hunting and fishing in Crafton.

The November 26, 1881 ad was followed by a story on Redlands.  “The clay soil is similar to Magnolia Avenue in Riverside, 37 purchasers bought the first 500 acres (average 13 ½ acres each), main avenues quarter mile apart, 100 feet wide, and run from northeast to southwest for convenience of irrigation.”   The next land sale for Redlands according to the press was January of 1882.  “One dollar was necessary for future proprietors, as evidence of good faith, will be given in order of application.  Land shown six days a week.  Judson and Brown, November 23, 1881  A Second Riverside! Redlands

The Los Angeles Commercial picked up on the excitement with the comment, “The sale of the new colony known as Redlands, has been phenomenal.”  The advertising of Redlands did much to place Lugonia on the map.  George Cook enlarged his store twice in a three month period to accommodate the new business.  General Warren Story bought the 160 acre Ball Ranch from J & B with 5 shares in the Sunnyside Ditch.  Judson sold 10 acres in Lugonia with a painted house, 150 orange trees, 60 apricot, 100 peach trees and 1 ½ acres of raisin grapes for $2,200.  Another 16 acres in East Highland on the North Fork Ditch but unimproved sold for $1,000.    J & B gave their usual liberal subscription to the Citrus Fair Association.

Rev. John G. Hale, of Vermont, decided to begin a building campaign for the Second Congregational Church.   Church services began regularly for those inclined at the Lugonia Elementary School.

One possible legal problem became evident in the January 1, 1882 Riverside Press and Horticulturalist.   Samuel Carey Evans, who was president of the Riverside Canal Company and president of the Riverside Land Irrigating Company questioned the “perfect water right” J & B claimed in their ads.  He argued the water obtained in the Redlands tunnels at the mouth of the Santa Ana Canyon was an infringement on Riverside rights since the flow of the river was reduced.   In bold type, Evans said J & B, “[claim] only the winter water, but their claim as filed does not say so, and they have excavated a ditch heading into the canyon, or above the junction of the North and South Fork ditches, to water their Redlands.”  “That this appropriation of water is going to be a source of much trouble and litigation there can be no question.”

The following issue of the Riverside Press and Horticulturalist editorial suggested Evans was only trying to scare the timid from buying Redlands land.  The editorial noted that J & B on the advice of legal advisors had carefully researched their Santa Ana water rights.  The last sentence in the editorial said, “neither Mr. Evans nor any other man can interfere with the work and we regret he should consider it his duty to raise a quibble in a matter in which there is no doubt.”  More than likely, the editorial was written by Luther M. Holt, a friend of both J & B.  Many of the new settlers of Redlands were from Riverside and Holt considered the new colony an adjunct to Riverside.  However, J & B had given Holt 40 acres in the first land sale.  Whether this was for advertising or critical subdivision and water advice no document answers.   One source noted Holt did not own the paper at this time.

Brown worked on his Bird’s Eye View of Redlands sketch in December of 1881.  He debated the lettering in his Day Book C with constant corrections as the next sale date approached for February 20, 1882.   The Second Preliminary Map of Redlands was filed February 23, 1882.  This new addition included street names.  Brookside Avenue extended from Barton Road (Citrus) to San Mateo Street.  The Mill Creek Zanja with a dry arroyo snakes along the north side of Citrus Avenue.  The tract veered east from Reservoir Road (Roosevelt) to Somers Street (Grove).  Brown made duplicate hand drawings in pencil of specific additions so prospective buyers would not get lost.

One noteworthy part of the map that is not shown is the Plaza Addition of Cypress and Center Street.  While lots were subdivided in this addition into 2 ½ acre and 5 acre parcels the Plaza Addition was not officially recorded until after the downtown was platted in 1887.   Land was “contracted” to Elon G. Waite in 1881 on the southwest corner of Center and Cypress.   Waite had no money for the land purchase so J & B offered the 2 ½ acres in return for labor.  Waite received credit amounting to $1 per day for his labor and $2 a day for his two horses and wagon to plant ornamental street trees supplied by the Judson nursery.

J & B had difficulty convincing reluctant farmers to plant citrus.  To pump-prime the cultivation of citrus, J & B gave citrus seedlings to Waite and paid him to plant them and care for them.  When the street trees were planted and the citrus cultivated and thriving J & B deeded the property to Elon J. Waite in 1883.  Waite planted another five acres on East Cypress and Roosevelt to advertise citrus in the Somers Tract.  Every history since has credited Waite for planting the first citrus in Redlands.  However, the trees were grown by Sarah Jane Morey in her nursery on Brookside Avenue.

The Plaza Addition shown clearly on the Birds’ Eye View of Redlands has led historians to count this land as part of the first subdivision.  Brown had a plan for the area and did “sell” or give away land there.  Today State law forbids the selling of land without a proper recorded county map but not in the early 1880’s.

Brown chose the street names of Brookside, Olive, Fern, Cypress, Palm, and Highland for southwest and northeast avenues.  Brookside with the Mill Creek Zanja flowing on the west end of the avenue was named to entice Riverside investors.   Spanish names beginning with Cajon and San Mateo were later joined by Alvarado, Ramona (California), Angelica (Buena Vista), San Jacinto, and Alessandro.  Terracina was a name chosen for an 1887 subdivision and later a hotel.   Streets travel southeast and northwest.  Redlands has only three boulevards with the first established by the first city council in 1888: Sylvan Blvd.  Terracina became a boulevard in 1924 when the area voted to annex to Redlands.   Redlands Blvd. was named after the street evolved from Water Street, Central, Ocean to Ocean Highway, and then Highway 99.   Interstate 10 eliminated Highway 99 leading to the present name.

Frank Brown did not record the sale price of each parcel in the February 20, 1882 sale.  He did, though, record the lot number, Block letter and number of acres.  The following is found in Day Book C p. 115.

Lot         Block               Owner                                         Acres

4 &5         E                   A.S. White                                     20

2               E                   Israel Beal                                      10

5               H                  D. N. Findley                                  10

6               I                    Minnie R. Johnson                        10    Sister of Brown

2               J                    J. H. Dewell                                    10

5 & 6        J                   J. G. Cockshutt                               20

7              K                   Charles A. Smith                            10

8              K                   Marcus F. Colburn                           5

8              K                   J. W. Bashford                                  5

1              K                   Mrs. Rebecca W. Brown               10  Mother of Brown

6 & 7       N                  Thomas W. Ladd                            20

2          xxvii                  John Hosking                                  20

3          xxvii                  Thomas B. Inch                               20

4          xxvii                   Hugh Marshall                               20

5          xxvii                   Mrs. Sarah Jane Morey                10

6          xxxiii                  Eugene B. Cutts                             10

Xxxiv                  Walter N. Main                              50

6          F                      James S. Edwards                          10

3          F                       S. R. Weir                                        10

1          P                       Marcus F. Colburn                          5

41/2    H                      Marcus F. Colburn                          5

Total of 290 acres


The second land sale of 500 acres appears less successful but that assumption is in error.  Between November 1881 and February 1882 J & B continued to sell land that was part of the second 500 acres.  Brown drew duplicate pencil maps that identified streets and stake locations.  One dated map in Day Book C dated February 5, 1882 shows land from Somers Street (Grove St.) to Reservoir (Roosevelt).  One other pencil map indicates the lots between East Highland, East Palm, Reservoir and Somers.  The stake locations are measured in rods from each other.  The maps provided some convenience for prospective land buyers and only a few have survived time folded in Day Book C.

Land purchase names not included by Brown for land were included by the Riverside Press and Horticulturalist.   Brown did not include some names since the land was given at no cost (family members) for several and many purchased land before the advertised sale in November.   The names not listed in the November 1881 sale are Luther M. Holt 40 acres, J. G. Cockshutt 20 acres, E. K. Henderson 20 acres, Mrs. Rebecca Wilmot Brown 10 acres, Israel Beal 10 acres, Mrs. Benton (Minnie) Johnson 10 acres, J. L. Hicks 10 acres, George Frost 20 acres, James S. Edwards 10 acres, Dr. Ellen Brown Seymour 4 acres, and J. B. Kimball 10 acres.

Prior to the February 1882 land sales continued.  John F. Walsh purchased 20 acres in January 1882.  Oren J. Abbott spent $1900 February 6.  J. W. Bishford bought $250 worth or 5 acres.  Charles Truesdell, who purchased the first land in September 1881, bought $700 more in March.  March seems to have continued land sales with Charles A. Smith $750, Benjamin Watrous $1000, Eugene B. Cutts 10 acres $750, H. L. Rutgers 20 acres, and Daniel N. Findlay $500.

Dr. Watrous, a Civil War veteran, bought land on the southeast corner of East Olive and Cajon Street.  Following the lead of J & B he subdivided his property September 6, 1887 and named Nordina, Sonora and Myrtle Streets from Clark Street to East Olive.

April and May 1882 sustained sales to Frank P. Morrison 24 acres $2451, Libbie J. Holt 20 acres, Elon J. Waite 2 ½ acres and Lewis Jacobs 2 ½ acres.   Frank Morrison became one of the most important additions to the Redlands Colony.  Morrison began the Bank of East San Bernardino first in Lugonia and then moved the bank to Redlands as Redlands First National Bank.  Morrison served as the conscience of Frank Brown instructing him to improve his financial soul in the years to come.  Morrison was a future director in the Bear Valley Irrigation Company and treasurer.  Morrison built a beautiful home for $6,000 on East Palm and Somers Street and married the daughter of Dr. Stillman.

Lewis Jacobs, San Bernardino Bank president and founder, made major loans to J & B and provided a line of credit that extended to $30,000.  Jacobs invested in Redlands and held the mortgage on the unsold land in Redlands.  If J & B failed Jacobs would become the owner of 4,000 acres and perhaps even the water rights.

Before Frank Morrison began his bank, Lewis Jacobs and Myron Crafts provided loans to J & B.  Brown in one letter lamented the heavy burden with high interest rates Jacobs collected.  However, Jacobs also offered J & B additional stimulation to encourage the new colony.  J & B signed an agreement with Lewis Jacobs May 21, 1883 that involved 10 acres on the south east corner of Brookside Avenue and San Mateo.  This key corner is Block O and lot 5.  Jacobs promised to pay J & B $1400 to irrigate and farm the property for five years beginning January 1, 1884.  J & B could keep all the profits from rent of the property and the crops produced.  Lewis was tasked with planting “one hundred and eighty seedling orange trees, twelve hundred Sutton grape vines, twelve hundred Muscat grape vines and twelve hundred and forty feet of cypress hedging” on Brookside Avenue and San Mateo Street.  Lewis also agreed to construct a waste water ditch on Brookside Avenue.

This remarkable agreement garnered J & B a little cash to pursue the Bear Valley project and at the same time pump-prime the Redlands project.  The road to Old Town connected to San Mateo and Brookside on this corner and new buyers from Riverside traveled this route.  The demonstration corner with citrus and vineyards was an addition to the Lon Waite corner on Cypress and Center and the other demonstration property at Reservoir and East Cypress.   Professor J. E. Sinclair farmed the 20 acres on East Cypress and was a Connecticut man like J & B.

The cypress hedge is another example of J & B promoting aesthetics.   Soon after finishing the grading of Brookside Avenue J & B planted pepper trees in the center divider.  Each side of the new avenue had nineteen feet of walkway planted with parkway palms adding to the attractiveness.

The popularity of the Redlands Tract allowed J & B to raise the price to $100 an acre and then $125 an acre.  Larger parcels received a lower rate per acre and individual negotiations concerning credit and the price per acre were never set in stone.   The Redlands Tract could actually advertise Redlands as the Second Riverside since twenty-seven of the land buyers were from Riverside.   J & B sold 1,004 acres from November 1881 to December 1882.

Two new subdivision maps of Redlands were released April 8, 1882 and May 2, 1882.  Both these new Additions to the Second Preliminary Map of Redlands were not recorded until July 1887.  The May map shows a part of the Plaza with 2 ½ and 5 acre lots and both Cypress and Center Street do not extend through the plaza.   One reason for this exclusion was the Edward Judson homestead claim of 1881.  Part of this claim is the southeast ¼ of section 34 with a corner of this property protruding into the intended plaza.   Judson could not receive a patent for this property prior to 1886.   Addition No. 3 includes another 160 acres west of San Mateo further enlarging the tract.

J & B sold their first Redlands Tract land September 21, 1881 to Charles E. Truesdell.  Truesdell bought the land before the November sale day for $250 on the south side of Olive Avenue and Fourth Street or the present site of Holy Name and Jesus Church property.   Truesdell was the first to marry in the Redlands Tract and was the first lawyer.

The Redlands Tract sale of 1881-1882 culminated in the creation of greater Redlands with incorporation in 1888 that encompassed Lugonia and a history that is traced to 1867.